Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. A silver-colored metal, Tin is soft enough to be cut with little force, and a strip of Tin can be bent by hand with little effort. When bent, the so-called "tin squeak" can be heard as a result of the addition of tin crystals; This characteristic is shared by indium, cadmium, zinc and mercury in the solid state.
After solidification, pure zinc has a mirror-like appearance like most metals. In most tin alloys, the metal turns light brown on solidification.
Tin is a soft, malleable, ductile, highly crystalline silvery-white metal. When the tin rod is bent, a crackling sound is heard from the twin crystals known as the "tin screech". Tin melts at a low temperature of about 232 °C (450 °F), the lowest in group 14. The melting point for tin particles is lowered to 177.3 °C (351.1 °F). 11 nm.
99.85% Commercial grade resists tin alteration due to the inhibitory effect of small amounts of bismuth, antimony, lead and silver present as impurities. Alloying elements such as copper, antimony, bismuth, cadmium and silver increase its hardness. Tin easily forms hard and brittle intermetallic phases, which is often undesirable. It generally does not form the wide solid solution range of other metals, and few elements have significant solid solubility in tin. However, simple eutectic systems occur with bismuth, gallium, lead, thallium, and zinc.
Tin in amounts ranging from 5 to 70% w/w has long been used as a solder in lead alloys. Lead tin forms a eutectic mixture with a weight ratio of 61.9% tin and 38.1% lead (atomic proportions: 73.9% tin and 26.1% lead) with a melting temperature of 183 °C (361.4 °F). This solder is mainly used for joining pipes or electrical circuits.
Tin alloy corrodes easily and is used to protect lead, zinc and steel from corrosion. Tin-plated (or tin-plated) steel containers are widely used for food preservation, and make up a large portion of the metal tin market.
Tin combines with other elements to form a variety of useful alloys. Tin is usually mixed with copper. Tin contains 85–99% tin; the percentage of tin in the bearing metal is even higher. Bronze is mostly copper with 12% tin, while the addition of phosphorus produces phosphor bronze. Bell metal is also a copper-tin alloy, containing 22% tin. Sometimes zinc is used in coins